4.24.2016

Noble Metal Battery: Open Source new battery technology patent

This open source patent can be used and/or commercialized by anyone.  Please, make money off of this.

NOBLE METAL BATTERY 

Why use noble metals?  The simple answer to that question is "because they can be recharged". Now that may strike you as odd.  No batteries out there use only noble metals yet they recharge right? Right, sort of.  They don't charge very well.  Lithium battery fires, batteries that only last 10 years and have to be replaced, etc.  What we have come to expect as the caveats of batteries aren't inevitable.  What if your parents endowed you with a battery when you turned 18 and you could use it daily for the rest of your life?  That is the type of battery this technology of noble metal batteries offer.  Nearly infinite cycle life.  In fact, a noble metal battery will likely grow better over time.  How is that possible?  Every drain/recharge cycle atoms move away from the anode (the power generating electrode) and back to the anode.  Every time atoms leave and are redeposited they grow in a fractal pattern a lot like how dew condenses on a cold window.  With a metal the microscopic "droplets" don't combine into water droplets, rather they keep depositing on top of each-other causing a micro or nano structured electrode.  Now the voltage is only determined by 3 things; anode material, cathode material, and electrolyte.  However the current is determined by the surface area.  So your battery (assuming you keep the electrolyte refreshed) will always maintain the same voltage, but the more cycles the battery gets the more current you can draw from it.  The total amp hours will stay the same but the rate at which you can use up those amp hours can be greater.  So the power available will increase over time.

Likely with noble metal batteries the manufacturer would run it though say 1,000 cycles to break it in and increase the power potential.


*Tellurium (Te) should also be categorized in nobel metals, Thallium for sure is a noble metal as well.  Tin and lead are close but I will categorize them as intermediate metals because of their low negative solidification reduction potential, wheras elements with high negative solidification potentials like silicon, aluminum, and lithium I will categorize as terminal metals.

Now what makes this different than other 
 rechargeable technologies?  Why do those batteries break yet this one won't? Well to put it simply, they aren't using rechargeable  materials.  They literally do a hackjob so that their battery can pseudo recharge.  (Aside: The NatureHacker mentality isn't about doing "hackjobs" to get things to work.  The NatureHacker mentality is about truly digging deep and understanding exactly how nature works so that when we make something, it sings like a fine tuned crystal glass).  They combine a few materials like lithium plus iron plus phosphate (all are non rechargeable) and somehow it can kinda recharge.  Its kind of a farce when you think about it.  Current battery technology is analogous to someone trying to scale the side of a skyscraper to get to the top while someone else (Noble metal battery) just goes inside and takes the elevator.  But unless you understand what an elevator is and know what it looks like, you wouldn't know it could solve your problem.

So how do we know that noble metals are the only truly rechargeable metals?  Well simply looking at the oxidation/reduction potential table.  Reforming a solid metal from an ion with a voltage only occurs with noble metals.  In other words there is a positive voltage potential.  This means when you add electrons to a solution of gold ions, for example, the gold ions will accept the electrons and turn into solid gold.  All metals besides noble metals will not do this.  Their voltage potential is negative which means the reaction only goes backwards.  In other words with other metals they will not simply accept electrons. To reduce these metals most of the time you will need a carbothermic reduction like is the case with aluminum or silicon.  These elements make great 1 time use batteries but not rechargeable.

So lets get into the specifics.  How do I build this battery?  Well the answer is simple, take 2 different noble metals, throw some oxidizing acid between them, and viola, a battery.  That is literally it.  What I have found works well is using a traditional noble metal like copper, silver, or gold paired with a refractory metal (which are categorized within the noble metals) such as tantalum, molybdenum, vanadium, or tungsten.  Copper will give a max of around 0.55 volts, silver will give 0.9 volts, and gold over 1 volt as well as palladium and platinum. Basically the more expensive your battery, the more volts it will produce.  My current pick of the moment is a Tantalum/Silver for relatively low cost and decent voltage.  You can alloy any of these metals you want as well.  Also you can have layers of different metals or alloys to change the voltage potential during discharge or to save money on making a solid electrode out of expensive metal.  You could even use the same base metal as both electrodes then have another metal(s) as ions in your electrolyte which will deposit onto one electrode (which ever one you hook up to "negative") while charging.

Now we simply have to pick an electrolyte to use.  The electrolyte must be capable of dissolving the anode material (copper, silver, gold, palladium, platinum, iridium etc.) but not dissolve the cathode.  A battery works by creating a difference, a difference in one metal's ability to be oxidized over the other.  If the two metals can be oxidized about just as easy then there will be no voltage.  If one is easily oxidized and the other difficult to oxidize then you will get the maximum potential difference (voltage) for that given reaction.  Tantalum is supposedly easy to oxidize yet in practice it seems to be the toughest metal because the oxide is totally insoluble.  This means once it oxidizes the surface it stops and can no longer be oxidized.  This means it can probably even beat iridium, and make a tantalum/iridium battery which would be the highest power ultra rechargeable battery possible.

Back to the electrolyte.  You can choose any non metal or metaloid or combination thereof for the basis of the electrolyte (including just simply h2o2 by itself (oxygen acid) if the anode metal's oxide is soluble in water like chromium (chromic acid)). Key is it has to be oxidizing so that it can dissolve the anode, and noble metals are pretty hard to dissolve.  The simplest solution is nitric acid.  I tend to like iodic acid.  Iodic acid is made by dissolving iodine metal in water and oxidizing it with hydrogen peroxide.  You could also try a hydrochloric acid with h2o2 (but may produce chlorine gas) or pirhanna solution (sulfuric acid and h2o2) phosphoric acid or boric acid or even selenic acid mixed with h2o2.  Any non metal or metalloid will work (Maybe including noble gasses?  Technology doesn't currently exist to make noble gas acids but possibly in the future?).



Anyway that is about it.  A nice easy low cost introductory combo could be copper and molybdenum with iodic acid which gives 0.4 volts.  Switching to a better cathode like tungsten or tantalum can bring it up to 0.55 volts.  Nitric acid could probably be used with a metal better than molybdenum like tantalum or tungsten and get 0.5 volts, but between copper and molybdenum nitric acid only produces 0.2 volts.

Have fun, be creative, and improve the planet with green battery technology!



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