5.31.2016

Noble Metal cathode battery open source invention new types

A noble metal battery is defined as a battery with any anode, and any electrolyte, and a cathode that includes at least one noble metal even if that noble metal is claimed to function only as a "current collector".  The surfaces of the anode or cathode may or may not have oxidation layers and/or compound layers added during manufacturing and/or developed in contact with the electrolyte and/or during use.  The materials used in the battery may also be in any form, from nano or pico structured, to anything being plated with it, to a simple block.  A noble metal is defined as any element that has a positive electrode potential OR refractory metals that act like noble metals that don't have a positive electrode potential such as molybdenum, vanadium, niobium, etc.  Valve metals, while included in this definition, don't make good cathodes because their non-conductive oxidation layers usually severely limit current flow.  The battery could be any type; from primary, to secondary (storage), to reserve but preferably secondary (rechargeable).  This battery is defined and is open source and can be used by anyone.

I want to describe five new types of batteries that fit under the noble metal battery invention. Copper noble battery (cu),  The calcium noble metal battery, the lithium noble metal battery, the germanium noble metal battery and the magnesium noble battery (mg).  The germanium noble (ge) will be roughly 1.5 volts.  It will use a noble metal cathode.  This can be any noble metal but especially gold, reuthenium, rhenium, iridium, osmium or a combination of metals.  It can be sintered or plated or any other technology the only requirements are that one or more noble metals are used in the cathode and germanium metal is used in the anode (but not limited to only germanium).  Germanium was selected because while having a positive electrode potential it has a very low positive electrode potential and provides the greatest difference from the other noble metals possible while still staying positive (noble metals typically have electrode potential 1.6-1.8).  This potential difference between ge and higher noble metals produces the cell voltage.  In the same way copper can be used instead of or in addition to germanium but its electrode potential is a little higher so it will only develop a voltage of roughly 1.2 volts.  But the copper version is easier to produce and less expensive.

In a similar way magnesium can also be used with a noble metal cathode.  A noble metal cathode would be chosen because it can decrease the batteries internal resistance and also increase the batteries cycle life since the cathode is highly resistant to corrosion.  Magnesium was selected for its high negative electrode potential yet it is still a relatively stable metal exposed to air or aqueous solutions.  This battery should produce upwards of 2.6 volts and can be recharged if the electrolyte used has a more negative reduction potential such is the case with a fluoride salt like sodium or potassium fluoride but any fluoride can be used.  Aqueous or non aqueous electrolyte can be used.  An acid like hydrofluoric acid shouldn't be used if you want to prevent self discharge as the hydrogen ions would oxidize the magnesium while the battery was sitting.  But acids can be used and still be within the scope of this open source invention and would probably make the cell a reserve battery.  Using a ion like fluoride allows the magnesium to be recharged because the electrolyte is not preferentially reduced rather the magnesium can be reduced during recharge, reforming magnesium metal.  In the same way calcium and lithium can be used instead of or in addition to magnesium and any electrolyte needs to be chosen that allows such metal(s) to be  recharged such as a hexafluorophosphate ion.

In order to maximize the voltage and amperage of a noble metal battery an oxidizer or combination of oxidizers can be contacting anywhere in the battery preferably at the cathode or in the electrolyte.  This can be any oxidizer but good ones would be air, oxygen, and hydrogen peroxide.

5.29.2016

Noble metal cathode battery open source invention patent. Iridium osmium gold superbattery

**Edit:  It seems as though I am wrong here, if you have a positive electrode metal like Gold at 1.6 volts and a negative one like aluminum at negative 1.6 volts, they don't add together to give 3.4 volts, rather they give only roughly 1.6 volts from the aluminum.  It seems like you cannot "crossover" from negative territory to positive territory and add the volts.  However the noble metal cathode likely still will be usefull in these negative electrode potential anode batteries because it is harder to oxidize while charging so the batteries will likely have a longer lifetime of charge cycles**


I have been thinking and experimenting with what I call a "noble metal battery" for a few months now.  This battery, while useful (currently I get 1.2 v with copper anode iridium cathode hcl electrolyte) is actually designed on a faulty premise.  I believed that the only pure metals that could be recharged had a positive electrode potential.  That is actually false.  The limiting factor on recharging is the reduction of the electrolyte.  So if your electrolyte is very hard to reduce, you can use metals with negative electrode potential.  In order to get lithium to recharge they use lithium hexafluorophosphate which is the salt of what is basically a superacid.  So just as long as your electrolyte is more difficult to reduce than your anode, you can use negative electrode potential anodes like lithium, magnesium, aluminum etc and they can be recharged.

So I am now modifying my design to be any noble metal(s) as the cathode and any metal(s) as an anode.  Iridium for example according to my tests seems to have an electrode potential of roughly 1.8 volts.  So coupled for instance with lithium the battery would produce roughly 4.8 volts. Aluminum iridium would give up to 3.4 volts.  To use a metal with a negative electrode potential the electrolyte needs to be non acidic otherwise the electrode potential of H+ being zero would oxidize the anode.  So salts of strong acids need to be used which is basically strong acids neutralized by the same (or different) element that makes the anode material.  For example lithium hexafluorophosphate electrolyte would be used with a lithium anode and the cathode could be any noble metal.  I am terming noble metals as any metal that has a positive electrode potential.  The best seem to be gold, ruthenium, iridium and osmium all giving around 1.6 to 1.8 volts roughly whereas a standard cathode of copper or carbon gives roughly 0.6 volts, but copper and carbon as cathodes would also fall under this invention since they have positive electrode potentials, although its hard to test carbon's electrode potential.

In conclusion the noble metal battery is any battery that uses noble metal(s) as a cathode.  This can be done for many reasons but especially to either achieve a greater voltage than normally can be achieved, or to increase the charge cycle lifetime.  Salts can be used as the electrolyte (aqueous or non aqueous), acids, or bases or combinations for the electrolyte.  Cells can be isolated like in a Daniel cell or with a membrane or combined in the same electrolyte.

In order to make up for the inevitable loss of surface area of the cathode using expensive metals rather than cheap carbon, oxidizer can be added to the cathode and/or electrolyte.  Examples include air, oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, etc.  Any oxidizer will work.  Air/oxygen is nice because you can depressurize or degass the solution or stop pumping the gases and the oxidation stops.

5.25.2016

Why How does Schweizer's reagent work to dissolve cellulose cotton? Reducing agent

I have tried dissolving cellulose in the past and have not really been successful.  Some protocols call for using frozen sodium hydroxide whereas other protocols call for hot sodium hydroxide.  Some call for the addition of urea.  One thing that looks most promising is alkali plus a reducing agent.  But then there is Schweizer's reagent.  What is this bizzare compound and how does it work so well to dissolve cellulose?  Well it is a copper atom bonded with 4 ammonia molecules, two water molecules, and a couple hydroxides.  



So how and why does this weird wonky molecule work to dissolve cellulose?  Well first of all it has hydroxides which are strong alkali's which is how sodium hydroxide kind of works to dissolve cellulose.  Next it has ammonia.  Ammonia can act as a reducing agent by loosing a proton.  However the other end of the ammonia is bound to a copper ion.  What does this do?  Well it makes the Ammonia more like ammonium, a nitrogen with 4 hydrogens instead of 3.  So the copper ion makes the ammonia an even better proton donor and hence reducing agent. We couldn't achieve the same result by just adding ammonium to the mix, because it would immediately loose its extra proton from the alkaline conditions. The copper helps stabilize an ammonium-like compound even in alkaline conditions.  The water molecules as well, they act like H3O since they have an extra bond with copper so can more easily give a proton as a reducing agent. Again H30 only occurs in acidic conditions so the copper ion makes it possible in alkaline solution.

Well there you have it, that is why this bizarre  reagent works so well at dissolving wood.

5.23.2016

65%+ Buy Hydrobromic acid for sale online fuming concentrated greaterthan 48% HBr


This is a very pure 16M+ distilled acid but is meant for battery research since bromine isn't something needed by the human body in appreciable amounts. But it is very clean.

This is a stronger acid than hydrochloric and this is the most concentrated form you will find anywhere! Much more concentrated than 48% commonly for sale.

$20 1 oz Hydrobromic acid 65%+

**This recipie works great but unfortunatly I am no longer able to make this**

Recipe:

103g NaBr
100mL 85% Phosphoric acid
distill
yield 56 mL ~66% acid

Of course concentrated acids like this are extremely corrosive and can be very dangerous.  Wear proper safety equipment.  The acid is fuming so do not sniff it.  If the acid is heated, suffocating fumes can be released. Over exposure to bromine (from fumes or whatnot) will cause nerve pain.  Counter with iodine and salt (chloride and iodine).  Of course call poison control or 911 in the case of an emergency.

5.18.2016

Dual electrolyte electroplate battery (Noble metal battery)

I wanted to coin a new term for my noble metal battery invention; the electroplating battery.  Noble metals (or refractory which I group in the term noble or noble gasses.  I consider any element a "noble metal" for purposes of this battery as long as it has a positive oxidation potential to achieve a reduced form) are not necessarily required for this iteration.  This new iteration of this battery (though not as practical as my initial invention) uses 2 electrolyte solutions (or 1 solution modified before recharging).  One solution is used for charging and the other for discharging.

Some noble metals (like chromium, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, plutonium, selenium, silica, tellurium, thallium, tungsten, possibly vanadium, but shouldn't be limited to those, more could work) will be corroded in a non reversible way like in a primary (non rechargeable) battery cell.  However, when the electrolyte is modified, the dissolved metal can be recharged, that is; electrodeposited back onto the cathode (which was the anode during discharging). This open source invention encompasses all such elements that can act as primary cells, but upon modifying the electrolyte, can be redeposited in their metallic form or as a compound or just a reduced ion.  Also it doesn't necessarily have to be able to reform a fully reduced metallic deposit, the battery could be ionic which in this case means could work on liquid or gaseous forms.  Just as long as the ions can be oxidized during discharge and reduced during recharging by modification of the electrolyte then it falls under this invention.

As a case study lets consider chromium. With a chromium anode and a sodium hydroxide electrolyte and non reactive (noble metal) cathode, this would form a primary cell with a voltage potential of anywhere between roughly -0.74v to -1.31v (depending on the electrolyte).  Keeping with the sodium hydroxide electrolyte, this cell has a negative oxidation potential.  This means the chromium ions in solution cannot accept electrons in order to cause the ions to be reduced to metallic form and redeposit on the electrode that is providing the electrons.  So what can we do?  Well taking this invention, we can modify the electrolyte so the chromium compounds in solution can actually redeposit.  Looking at the oxidation reduction tables we notice that upon the addition of H+ ions the chromium oxides can accept electrons which is seen by the positive oxidation potentials.  So for example we could neutralize and acidify the electrolyte with acid after the battery is discharged then recharge the battery.  The Chromium would leave the electrolyte and be redeposited back onto the electrode.  This acidified electrolyte can be removed and then replaced with an alkaline electrolyte and the battery is ready to run again.

5.08.2016

Unleash Nature's Fury: Natural anti insomnia, anxiety, cancer, improvesenergy helps nightmares trichillomania

One pill to rule them all....Nature's Fury.  Please see the site disclaimer on the right side bar.

$17 Nature's Fury 50ct capsules (27.5g powder total, 550mg per capsule)


 Adaptogens.  No one seems to know how they work on helping the body and mind adapt to stress and ease anxiety but I have it figured out.  Adaptogens all have in common that they contain triterpenoid saponins.  These saponins are well absorbed in the body (with the help of absorption enhancing steroidal saponins like tribulus or sarsaparilla) and naturally clean out gram positive bacteria that are likely responsible for anxiety and in some cases insomnia.

This herbal extract combo can be used for any beneficial use the consumer deems appropriate.  Made with about a dozen potent (and expensive) food grade adaptogenic herbal extracts.  Each capsule of extracts is more potent than 10 capsules of powdered herbs.  I use it for insomnia, anxiety, panic attacks, adhd, ocd, non-pancreatic cancer, Lyme, etc.  It obviously isn't approved by the FDA for any of these uses but I like to use powerful natural ingredients with no side effects.  It most likely will start causing die off symptoms (initial worsening of certain problems or symptoms) after a week of taking it or possibly sooner. This is probably from the pathogenic bacteria releasing toxins as they die. These extracts were chosen because they kill gram positive bacteria and spirocetes, bacteria like streptococcus has been thought to be linked to insomnia and anxiety and bacteria like Listeria has been thought to be linked to adrenal fatigue and cancer which this formula was also designed to fight.  Also it was designed to fight Lyme, which is typically difficult to eliminate but this product seems to work well on it.

Recommended serving: 1 pill (550 mg)
Best if taken daily.

50g gynostemma
40g rhodiola
30g ginseng
40g ashwagandha
40g eleutero
24g ginko
66g tribulus
18g garlic
50g wheatgrass
80g de
40g quercetin
20g pomegranate
20g ginger

5.03.2016

How to treat and cure chronic early waking insomnia. Sleep maintenance early morning awakening. What causes it? alternative to Ambien natural treatment herbs

So I had had this stubborn debilitating disease for 6 years.  I literally woke up after 4 hours of sleep and couldn't fall back asleep every single day for 6 years before I finally conquered it.  I had been having issues my entire life of waking up early but it was never debilitating and I could usually fall back asleep unless I was super excited about something.  But from all the stress of being in a religious cult (faith christian church tucson) and pulling all nighters to study my last year of my first degree, the insomnia got tenacious.  None of the BS that "doctors" or "experts" recommended worked including potent prescription drugs or "sleep hygiene" or any of that baloney.  "Hygiene" IS what eventually cured it, but hygiene means killing bacteria not when to stop using your phone or turn the lights off and other nonsense.

So what is the root cause of early waking insomnia?  The root cause is gram positive bacteria inside the body.  I don't use 'inside' loosely.  Inside meaning not in the gut, in traditionally sterile places in the body.  It could be either the bone marrow or adrenal glands or the CNS proper, and I am going to venture to say the CNS.  The type of bacteria is for sure gram positive but it could be listeria, streptococcus, or staphylococcus.  I know it isn't lyme disease because this type of insomnia has been happening for millenia (people get old and they can't sleep as long) and lyme borrelia burgdorferi is relatively new.  You could probably do some research on which one of those tends to do the best in the CNS and that is probably the one that causes this.  It is probably strep.  But regardless of what specific species it is, all we really need to know to treat it is that it is gram positive.

How do I know that it is gram positive and in the body not gut and specifically CNS?  Good questions.  I know it isn't from the gut because I have killed gram positive and gram negative bacteria from the gut for years and it never helped.  I did that by taking food grade diatomaceous earth and tribulus terrestris.  The DE killed gram negative in the gut and tribulus is a steroidal saponin that kills gram positive but steroidal saponins aren't absorbed so it stayed in the gut.

How do I know it is gram positive?  Well things that kill gram positive bacteria system wide (adaptogens) cured it.  They have something called triterpenoid saponins which are absorbed and kill gram positive bacteria throughout the body even crossing the blood brain barrier.

How do I know it is in the CNS?  The symptoms I get from taking the adaptogens as well as my insomnia symptoms.  Early on in my insomnia stretching would help especially sleeping with my neck crooked.  This basically disrupted the biofilm in the nerve tracts.  When the immune system rests in REM sleep I would get very weak hands which signified the bacteria in the nerve pathway biofilms throughout the body would get the upper hand.  This is why early waking insomnia wakes you up, the bacteria get such an upper hand especially in REM sleep when the immune system rests, that the body prevents itself from entering REM.  This causes REM deprivation, deficit, and depletion disorder.  REM happens in the morning so waking up early means your body is preventing REM.  Also taking adaptogens I could feel the nerve tracts (spinal cord area) felt satisfyingly weird.  This means it was attacking the biofilms around the spinal cord and elsewhere in the body including the meninges around the brain.

So this is a battle folks.  These bacteria have been infecting our CNS since likely we were in the womb.  It is unlikely we can kill them all off and have a sterile CNS.  But we can fight and can get the upper hand.  We will need to take adaptogens daily or near daily for the rest of our lives.  The good news is once we start killing them naturally like this our bodies immune system gets the message; like a vaccine it sees the dead parts of the bacteria and it learns and can better kill them off.  So the more consistently we take adaptogens the more the immune system learns and the less we will need to take adaptogens to maintain our new found health. 

Now I can sleep basically as long as I want.  I still do oftentimes wake up around 5 or 6 hours from nightmares but I can always fall right back asleep usually without even getting up.  I usually end up sleeping roughly 9 hours a night now instead of the 4 hours I couldn't get more than for 6 whole years.

Gynostemma extract is the best single thing you can take, I will also have products that include several adaptogens including future products Re:Charge and Nature's Fury so keep an eye out for those coming soon!