Noble Metal cathode battery open source invention new types

A noble metal battery is defined as a battery with any anode, and any electrolyte, and a cathode that includes at least one noble metal even if that noble metal is claimed to function only as a "current collector".  The surfaces of the anode or cathode may or may not have oxidation layers and/or compound layers added during manufacturing and/or developed in contact with the electrolyte and/or during use.  The materials used in the battery may also be in any form, from nano or pico structured, to anything being plated with it, to a simple block.  A noble metal is defined as any element that has a positive electrode potential OR refractory metals that act like noble metals that don't have a positive electrode potential such as molybdenum, vanadium, niobium, etc.  Valve metals, while included in this definition, don't make good cathodes because their non-conductive oxidation layers usually severely limit current flow.  The battery could be any type; from primary, to secondary (storage), to reserve but preferably secondary (rechargeable).  This battery is defined and is open source and can be used by anyone.

I want to describe five new types of batteries that fit under the noble metal battery invention. Copper noble battery (cu),  The calcium noble metal battery, the lithium noble metal battery, the germanium noble metal battery and the magnesium noble battery (mg).  The germanium noble (ge) will be roughly 1.5 volts.  It will use a noble metal cathode.  This can be any noble metal but especially gold, reuthenium, rhenium, iridium, osmium or a combination of metals.  It can be sintered or plated or any other technology the only requirements are that one or more noble metals are used in the cathode and germanium metal is used in the anode (but not limited to only germanium).  Germanium was selected because while having a positive electrode potential it has a very low positive electrode potential and provides the greatest difference from the other noble metals possible while still staying positive (noble metals typically have electrode potential 1.6-1.8).  This potential difference between ge and higher noble metals produces the cell voltage.  In the same way copper can be used instead of or in addition to germanium but its electrode potential is a little higher so it will only develop a voltage of roughly 1.2 volts.  But the copper version is easier to produce and less expensive.

In a similar way magnesium can also be used with a noble metal cathode.  A noble metal cathode would be chosen because it can decrease the batteries internal resistance and also increase the batteries cycle life since the cathode is highly resistant to corrosion.  Magnesium was selected for its high negative electrode potential yet it is still a relatively stable metal exposed to air or aqueous solutions.  This battery should produce upwards of 2.6 volts and can be recharged if the electrolyte used has a more negative reduction potential such is the case with a fluoride salt like sodium or potassium fluoride but any fluoride can be used.  Aqueous or non aqueous electrolyte can be used.  An acid like hydrofluoric acid shouldn't be used if you want to prevent self discharge as the hydrogen ions would oxidize the magnesium while the battery was sitting.  But acids can be used and still be within the scope of this open source invention and would probably make the cell a reserve battery.  Using a ion like fluoride allows the magnesium to be recharged because the electrolyte is not preferentially reduced rather the magnesium can be reduced during recharge, reforming magnesium metal.  In the same way calcium and lithium can be used instead of or in addition to magnesium and any electrolyte needs to be chosen that allows such metal(s) to be  recharged such as a hexafluorophosphate ion.

In order to maximize the voltage and amperage of a noble metal battery an oxidizer or combination of oxidizers can be contacting anywhere in the battery preferably at the cathode or in the electrolyte.  This can be any oxidizer but good ones would be air, oxygen, and hydrogen peroxide.

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