Glucuronolactone but not glucuronic acid is converted to vitamin C in humans

Here is the study that proves that vitamin C can be made in the body of humans and man:


We are told that humans cannot make vitamin C.  Well this simply is not true and is false.  Humans actually can make vitamin C from glucuronolactone.  It appears however that we are not able to convert glucuronic acid into glucuronolactone by the above study however.  So how can we make glucuronolactone? Why can't humans make vitamin C from glucose or sugar?

Well it should be able to be made from glucuronic acid if there is NADPH present.  And to produce NADPH we need antioxidants like glutathione made from Cysteine and other things can help like PQQ, Resveratrol, Coq10, Quercetin, astaxanthan, etc.  GlcUA is glucuronic acid and GlcUL is glucuronolactone as seen below.

Here is another view

Another mechanism is the spontaneous conversion of glucuronic to glucuronolactone in alkaline conditions.  This goes backwards in acidic conditions.


So it seems that we need antioxidants or an alkaline pH and glucuronic acid to produce vitamin c.  This is kind of besides the point because it takes stronger antioxidants than Vit C in order to make it.  So this means even if we aren't getting vitamin C directly, as long as we are getting antioxidants then we can make Vit C on our own.  Also if we alkalize the body we should be able to produce vitamin C.

How to make glucuronic acid or sodium glucuronide:

Glucuronic acid can be made easily by oxidizing starch.  Simply take starch and mix in 45% nitric acid or higher concentration until it is smooth.  Let sit several days until it stops giving off orange gas (nitrogen dioxide).  The solution should be clear.  Next dilute it with water and add a mineral acid like food grade HCL or phosphoric acid.  Boil for several minutes.  Quench with food grade sodium hydroxide.  Now you have a solution of sodium glucuronide.

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